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18.2.3. Templates

Any output that is generated by rsyslog can be modified and formatted according to your needs with the use of templates. To create a template use the following syntax in /etc/rsyslog.conf:
$template TEMPLATE_NAME,"text %PROPERTY% more text", [OPTION]
where:

Generating Dynamic File Names

Templates can be used to generate dynamic file names. By specifying a property as a part of the file path, a new file will be created for each unique property, which is a convenient way to classify syslog messages.
For example, use the timegenerated property, which extracts a time stamp from the message, to generate a unique file name for each syslog message:
$template DynamicFile,"/var/log/test_logs/%timegenerated%-test.log"
Keep in mind that the $template directive only specifies the template. You must use it inside a rule for it to take effect. In /etc/rsyslog.conf, use the question mark (?) in an action definition to mark the dynamic file name template:
*.* ?DynamicFile

Properties

Properties defined inside a template (between two percent signs (%)) enable access various contents of a syslog message through the use of a property replacer. To define a property inside a template (between the two quotation marks ("")), use the following syntax:
%PROPERTY_NAME[:FROM_CHAR:TO_CHAR:OPTION]%
where:
The following are some examples of simple properties:

Template Examples

This section presents a few examples of rsyslog templates.
Example 18.8, “A verbose syslog message template” shows a template that formats a syslog message so that it outputs the message's severity, facility, the time stamp of when the message was received, the host name, the message tag, the message text, and ends with a new line.
Example 18.8. A verbose syslog message template
$template verbose, "%syslogseverity%, %syslogfacility%, %timegenerated%, %HOSTNAME%, %syslogtag%, %msg%\n"

Example 18.9, “A wall message template” shows a template that resembles a traditional wall message (a message that is send to every user that is logged in and has their mesg(1) permission set to yes). This template outputs the message text, along with a host name, message tag and a time stamp, on a new line (using \r and \n) and rings the bell (using \7).
Example 18.9. A wall message template
$template wallmsg,"\r\n\7Message from syslogd@%HOSTNAME% at %timegenerated% ...\r\n %syslogtag% %msg%\n\r"

Example 18.10, “A database formatted message template” shows a template that formats a syslog message so that it can be used as a database query. Notice the use of the sql option at the end of the template specified as the template option. It tells the database writer to format the message as an MySQL SQL query.
Example 18.10. A database formatted message template
$template dbFormat,"insert into SystemEvents (Message, Facility, FromHost, Priority, DeviceReportedTime, ReceivedAt, InfoUnitID, SysLogTag) values ('%msg%', %syslogfacility%, '%HOSTNAME%', %syslogpriority%, '%timereported:::date-mysql%', '%timegenerated:::date-mysql%', %iut%, '%syslogtag%')", sql

rsyslog also contains a set of predefined templates identified by the RSYSLOG_ prefix. These are reserved for the syslog's use and it is advisable to not create a template using this prefix to avoid conflicts. The following list shows these predefined templates along with their definitions.
RSYSLOG_DebugFormat
A special format used for troubleshooting property problems.
"Debug line with all properties:\nFROMHOST: '%FROMHOST%', fromhost-ip: '%fromhost-ip%', HOSTNAME: '%HOSTNAME%', PRI: %PRI%,\nsyslogtag '%syslogtag%', programname: '%programname%', APP-NAME: '%APP-NAME%', PROCID: '%PROCID%', MSGID: '%MSGID%',\nTIMESTAMP: '%TIMESTAMP%', STRUCTURED-DATA: '%STRUCTURED-DATA%',\nmsg: '%msg%'\nescaped msg: '%msg:::drop-cc%'\nrawmsg: '%rawmsg%'\n\n\"
RSYSLOG_SyslogProtocol23Format
The format specified in IETF's internet-draft ietf-syslog-protocol-23, which is assumed to become the new syslog standard RFC.
"%PRI%1 %TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %APP-NAME% %PROCID% %MSGID% %STRUCTURED-DATA% %msg%\n\"
RSYSLOG_FileFormat
A modern-style logfile format similar to TraditionalFileFormat, but with high-precision time stamps and time zone information.
"%TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg:::drop-last-lf%\n\"
RSYSLOG_TraditionalFileFormat
The older default log file format with low-precision time stamps.
"%TIMESTAMP% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg:::drop-last-lf%\n\"
RSYSLOG_ForwardFormat
A forwarding format with high-precision time stamps and time zone information.
"%PRI%%TIMESTAMP:::date-rfc3339% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag:1:32%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg%\"
RSYSLOG_TraditionalForwardFormat
The traditional forwarding format with low-precision time stamps.
"%PRI%%TIMESTAMP% %HOSTNAME% %syslogtag:1:32%%msg:::sp-if-no-1st-sp%%msg%\"